Front matter, forward, introduction

p 4 Aim High!

p 4 Ralph Moir:

p 23 Rethinking nuclear power course:

p 24 Energy from thorium blog and forum:

p 24 American Scientist article:

p 25 Kirk Sorensen, fire story;

p 26 Barack Obama March 26, 2012:


Energy and civilization

p 30 Energy share of GDP:

p 31 Car:

p 32 Jaguar, Volvo flywheel hybrids:

p 32 Hurricane energy:

p 32 Roller coaster:

p 33 Clock weight escapement:

p 34 Water wheel:

p 34 Chemical bonds:

p 37 Alhambra fountain:

p 40 Gas molecules:

p 47 Carnot heat engine:

p 48 Pulverized coal:

p 48 Pulverized coal temperature:

p 51 Taming of the Chloroplast:

p 52 Eukaryotic cell:

p 53 Richard Wrangham:

p 54 Horses: Vaclav Smil, Energies: An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization, MIT Press.

p 53 Quaker Oats;

p 53 Rickover speech on energy and slavery:

p 54 Brazil green steel:

p 55 Grinding flour:

p 56 Waterwheel:

p 57 Windmill:

p 58 England patent law and industrial revolution:

p 58 Newcomer steam engine:

p 60 World GDP per capita:

p 61 World energy consumption:

p 63 World CO2 emissions:

An unsustainable world

p 66 Meadows’ Limits to Growth at ASPO:

p 66 Revisiting Limits to Growth, American Scientist:

p 66 Meadows reviewed in Smithsonian:

p 68 Murphy interview:

p 68 Murphy, Do the Math: 70 CIA World Fact Book data:

p 74 EIA world energy;

India energy use:

p 74 OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: %,3746,en_21571361_44315115_49897570_1_1_1_1,00.html

p 76 NOAA climate charts:

p 78 Hansen climate forcings:

p 79 IPCC projections:

p 80 Rongbuk glacier:

p 81 Coral bleaching:

p 81 NY Times ocean acidity:

p 81 Ocean acidity tutorial:

p 81 Ocean acidification:

p 82 EPA sulfur dioxide emission:

p 82 EPA 2011 air pollution rule:!OpenDocument

p 83 Guardian ship emissions:

p 83 Gizmag ship emissions:

p 84 EPA ship emissions rule:

p 86 Conflict over resources: Prof. Michael Klare, Hampshire College, author of “Resource Wars” and “Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America’s Growing Petroleum dependency”

p 89 China Daily News Oct 7, 2010:

p 89 Greenland ice sheet melt:

p 90 OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050:


Energy sources

p 101 Energy Safari:

p 102 EIA 2010 sources/uses:

p 105 EIA 2010 Electric Power Annual:

p 103 Data center power use:

p 102 EIA 2012 Energy Outlook:

p 105 EIA 2010 Electric Power Annual:

p 106 EIA 2010 capital costs:

p 107 EIA 2010 Power Generation Costs:

p 108 EIA CO2 emissions:


p 109 IGCC efficiency:

p 110 New coal fired plants:

p 111 MIT CCS data base:

p 112 CBO CCS report:

p 113 China GreenGen:

p 113 Zobach Gorelick Earthquake triggering:

p 114 EIA coal costs:

p 114 MIT Revised Cost of Nuclear Power:

p 114 MIT Future Nuclear Power Fuel Cycle Ch 1-3:

p 114 MIT Future Nuclear Power Fuel Cycle Ch 4-9:

p 114 MIT Future of Coal:

p 114 EIA World Energy Outlook:

p 115 NY Times fossil fuel costs:

p 115 NAS fossil fuel hidden costs;

p 115 Harvard Med School coal costs:


p 117 Natural gas combustion turbine:

p 121 Hydraulic fracturing:

p 121 Fugitive methane emissions:

p 122 Matt Ridley Shale Gas Shock:

p 123 EIA Shale Gas:

p 122 EPA fracking emissions rule:

p 124 US nat gas pipelines:

p 126 Natural gas prices:

p 127 Japan nuclear-free GDP drop 7%:

p 128 Natural gas prices, EIA:

p 128  EIA 2012 Energy Outlook:

EIA Natural gas prices, Howard:

p 128 EIA Int’l natural gas outlook:

p 129 Pittinger shale gas prices:

p 130 Natural gas matches coal:


p 132 Brazos wind farm:

p 133 US DOE wind map:

p 135 Cape Wind prices:

p 135 NStar merger:

p 135 Deepwater Wind: 140 GE FlexEff/Wind combo:

p 136 William Palmer, Ontario Coal/Wind:

p 139 EPA proposed CO2/kWh limit:

p 140 Willem Post Wind/CO2:

p 141 Australia wind farm performance:

p 142 Irish grid wind CO2:

p 142 Bentek study CO and TX:

p 142 Lang CO2 avoided by wind:


p 144 Passive solar:

145 China solar hot water:

p 146 IEA world solar: 146 AllEarth solar production:

p 146 AllEarth solar VT diocese:

p 149 Albiasa Caceres:

p 149 Albiasa abandons Arizona:

p 149 Abengoa solar cost:

p 149 Brightsource CA solar cost:,0,6145488.story

p 147 Andasol parabolic troughs:

p 148 Andasol solar molten salt:

p 148 Solar grand plan:

p 150 MIT Intermittent Renewables:


p 151 Wood composition:

p 151 Wood moisture:

p 152 EPA clean energy stats:

p 151 USDA BTUs green wood:

p 151 EPA forest carbon sequestration:

p 152 NH biomass plant cost:

p 153 Burlington McNeil wood chip cost:

p 156 EROI ethanol:

p 157 Biomass per gallon:

p 157 US Renewable Energy Labs Biomass:

p 157 US cellulosic ethanol plant:

p 157 NREL biofuel brochure:

p 158 Corn prices:

p 158 Food fuel competition:

p 157 WSJ cellulosic ethanol mandate:

Energy storage

p 159 Economist energy storage:

p 160 Sadoway Mg-Sb liquid battery:

p 160 MIT liquid flow battery:

p 160 Battery switching car:

p 161 Utility scale batteries:

p 161 Beacon Power flywheels:

p 163 EPRI CAES:

p 164 EPRI utility battery costs:

p 164 EPRI energy storage exec summary:

p 166 Siemens hydrogen storage:


p 170 EIA 2012 annual energy outlook:

p 171 en.lighten energy saving:

p 170 Energy intensity:

p 173 Hansen on meat:


p 168 Hydro:

p 169 Grand Inga Dam:

p 174 Desalination:

p 174 Desalination Grand Cayman:

p 174 Nuclear power:

Liquid fluoride thorium reactor

p 178 Periodic table:

p 182 NRC PWR:

p 182 NRC BWR:

p 183 Fuel rod cross section:

p 187 Molten plutonium reactor:

p 189 Johnson thorium chemistry:

p 190 WNA on thorium:

p 200 Haubenreich, Engel, MSRE experience

p 200 Wikipedia MSRE:

p 192 ORNL molten salt document repository:

p 192 Hoglund’s ORNL molten salt doc repository:

p 192 MacPherson 1985 molten salt reactor adventure:

p 188 Aircraft reactor experiment:

\p 193 Wikipedia LFTR:

p 193 Forsberg et al advanced MSR high temp reactor:

p 198 MIT Steam/Brayton/SCO2 power conversion:

p 199 Forsberg open cycle Brayton:

p 200 Haubenreich interview:

p 200 Weinberg, Alvin; The First Nuclear Era: The life and times of a technological fixer

p 200 Martin, Richard; SuperFuel: Thorium, the green energy source for the future:

p 201 World spent fuel stocks:

p 202 Liquid chloride fast reactor:

p 203 Moir fission-fusion hybrid:

p 203 Moir Fusion thorium breeder:

p 204 US thorium reserves:

p 204 Lemhi Pass thorium reserves:

p 204 Thorium reserves:

p 206 David MSR waste:

p 206 LeBrun et al MSBR radiotoxicity:

Denatured Molten Salt Reactor (DMSR)

p 208 ORNL DMSR 1971:

p 208 ORNL 7207 scanned:

p 208 ORNL 7207 OCR Word, DMSR Engel et al 1980:

p 208 ORNL MSRE design study:

p 208 ORNL DMSR 1978:

p 208 ORNL 1979 development program:

p 208 ORNL 1972 MSR noble metals:

p 208 ORNL 1980 DMSR:

p 209 LeBlanc new beginning old idea:

p 209 denatured molten salt reactors:

p 209 LeBlanc MSRs:

p 209 LeBlanc DMSR video:

p 210 Forsberg proliferation resistant fuel cycles:

p 210 Forsberg: MSR Options:

p 210 Uranium seawater collection:

Pebble bed advanced high-temperature reactor (PB-AHTR)

p 212 UC Berkeley PB-AHTR project home:

p 212 Peterson, Scarlat 2010 PB-AHTR presentation:

p 215 Forsberg MIT/UCB/UW work:

p 215 TRISO fuel mfg B&W:

LFTR energy cheaper than coal

p 217 Kasten MOSEL MSR cost:

p 217 SL-1954 capital cost estimate:

p 217 Sargent and Lundy, Capital Investment for 1000 MW(e) Molten Salt Converter Reference Design Power Reactor, report SL 1994 (27 December 1962).

p 217 Oak Ridge TM1060 1965 cost estimate:

p 217 Moir MSR cost estimate:

p 217 ORNL LFTR fuel cycle costs:

p 217 Moir 2008 MSR est costs:

p 220 University of Chicago economic future nuclear power:

p 221 Boeing 737 assembly line, photo k62904 copyright Boeing Aircraft

Development tasks

p 226 ORNL MSR development uncertainties:

p 226 Forsberg MSR technology gaps:

p 227

p 227 ORNL MSR dev plan 1974:

p 231 ORNL noble metal migration:

p 231 Madden theoretical chemistry presentation:

p 231 Madden flibe conductivity viscosity:

p 233 Messinger MIT off gass:

p 235 Heat exchanger diagram:

p 235 Heat exchanger EfT forum:

p 235 ORNL materials testing plan:

p 235 ORNL materials experience:

p 235 Newsome, Snead, SiC neutron irradiation:

p 236 ORNL tritium:

p 236 Sorensen Li-6 separation:

p 236 EfT forum Lithium-7:

p 236 Ragheb isotopic separation:

p 238 Brayton cycle reheat:

p 238 U Waterloo Brayton cycle tutorial:

p 239 MIT supercritical CO2 power conversion:

p 239 Wright Sandia SCO2:

p 239 Wright, SCO2 interview:

p 239 Siemens 51% efficient steam turbine:

p 245 Bonometti program advice:

p 249 DOE plan destroy U-233:

p 244 Magreb decay heat:

p 244 Sorensen spent fuel explorer:

p 245 Siemer, Nuclear Technology, June 2012, Improving the integral fast reactor’s proposed salt waste management system


p 248 Moir, Restart MSR program:

p 248 ORNL docs, Energy from Thorium:

p 254 Transatomic Power:

p 254 Transatomic Power money:

255 Thorenco presentation:

p 257 ORLY Energy Group:

p 259 China pebble bed reactor:

p 258 China AP1000 cost:

p 260 Chinese Academy of Sciences:

p 263 International Thorium Energy Organization:

p 264 Merle-Lucotte Fast MSR start w plutonium:

p 264 Merle-Lucotte iTheo 2010 TMSR overview:

p 264 Merle-Lucotte min fissile in fast MSR:

p 264 Merle-Lucotte transition 2nd 3rd gen to TMSR:

p 265 Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology MSR article:

p 265 Mouney Pu management in LWR fuel cycle:

p 265 Czech LFTR joint venture:

p 265 Uhlir Rez Czech R&D:

p 266 Thorium Power Canada:

p 266 DBI Century Fuels:

p 266 Thorium One Canada:

p 267 Japan FUJI MSR:

p 267 Japan FUJI IAEA:

p 268 Furukawa et al sustainable secure nuclear industry:


p 271 US DOE NGNP:

p 272 NGNP Alliance docs:

p 272 NGNP 2010 status:

p 272 INL NGNP:

p 272 NGNP schedule:

p 272 INL NGNP fact sheet:

p 276 Westinghouse AP1000:

p 278 AP1000 in China:

Small modular reactors

p 280 B&W mPower:

p 281 NuScale:

p 282 Holtec presentation:

p 283 Westinghouse SMR:

p 283 NRC Westinghouse presentation:

p 284 Gen4 Energy:

Liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

p 285 Fast neutron reactors:

p 287 EBR-II:

p 289 Plutonium from UK magnox:

p 289 GE Hitachi advanced recycling center:

p 289 GEH Prism tech brief:

p 289 NRC GEH Prism pre application safety report NUREG-1368:

p 290 Russian Alfa submarine:

p 290 Russian SVBR-100:

p 291 TerraPower, Tyler Ellis et al:

p 292 TerraPower 500 MW, Charles Ahlfeld et al:

p 292 MIT Tech Rev of TWR;

Accelerator-driven subcritical reactors

p 296 McIntyre ADS:

p 296 WNA, ADS:

p 296 Subcritical reactors:

p 298 ORNL spallation neutron source:

p 299 Thorium Energy Association:

p 299 ThorEA 2010 report:

p 300 Rubbia, Aker Solutions, ADSR:

p 300 ADNA ADSR 2010:

p 300 Intl ADSR conferences [possible malware]:

p 300 iTheo 2010 ADSR and MSR presentations:

p 300 UK Daily Mail: Emma and thorium:


p 305 Madrigal 2010 accidents:

p 307 Paul Scherrer Insitut accidents:

p 308 NRC SORCA:

p 310 Alpha particles etc diagram:

p 311 Reactive oxygen species:

p 311 Idaho State U radioactivity in nature:

p 311 Idaho State U radiation information network:

p 312 Post, radiation exposure:

p 312 Health Physics Society:

p 312 IEM radiation tool box:

p 312 Health physics society:


p 318 Levitt, Freakonomics:

p 318 Slovic, Bull Atomic Scientists:

p 318 Bulletin Atomic Scientists on LNT:

p 319 Furedi, Culture of fear:

p 321 Cohen, LNT validity:

p 321 Cohen, LNT:

p 321 Cohen, Nuclear energy option:

p 321 Craig, LNT validity URL collection:

p 327 Taiwan apartment Co-60 radiation:

p 324 Fukushima radiation:

p 324 ANS Fukushima report:

p 325  DOE low dose radiation:

p 325 US DOE low dose radiation:

p 325 Cuttler Fukushima evacuation:

p 325 Cuttler Fukushima presentation:

p 325 New Mexico low background radiation experiment:

p 326 US DOE low dose research highlights:

p 326 Lawrence Berkeley Lab DNA repair:

p 326 Lawrence Berkeley Lab DNA repair:

p 327 MIT Engelward, Yanch, prolonged rad exposure: http: //

p 328 Int’l Dose Response Society:

p 328 Healthy worker effect:

p 328 Fukushima evacuation deaths:

p 328 Zbigniew Jaworowski, APS newsletter, radiation ethics:

p 329 Allison Radiation and Reason:

p 329 Allison 100mSv/month:

p 330 ANS special session on LNT (big download):

p 331 Ragheb Gabon natural reactors:,%20The%20Oklo%20Phenomenon.pdf

p 332 Sandia deep borehole disposal:

p 332 Economist, waste disposal:

p 334 WIPP:

p 335 David MSR waste:

p 336 Reed, Stillman, Nuclear Express:

p 336 NY Times, the bomb:

p 339 LeBrun et al, MSBR radiotoxicity, proliferation resist:

p 339 U-232 decay:

p 340 Kang, von Hippel, proliferation resistance U-233:

p 340 Gamma ray detecting satellites:

p 341 Hoglund molten salt references:

p 341 Hoglund proliferation resistance:

p 341  Moir molten salt papers:

p 341 Moir U-232 proliferation resistance:

p 341  Hoglund Multi mission MSR:

p 341 Energy from Thorium proliferation discussion:

p 342 Pakistan nuclear weapons:

A sustainable world


p 345 Holm thorium applications:

p 345 1200 world’s largest coal plants:


p 347 Worldwatch sustainable world:

p 348 Shell Pearl gas to liquids:

p 348 Shell, van de Veer:

p 349 Walter, alt transportation fuels:

p 350 Holm, coal2thorium:

p 353 Forsberg shale oil:

p 350 Colorado Geo Survey, retort:

p 350 RAND report on shale oil:

p 350 Shale oil extraction:

p 351 Shell electric heating:

p 352 Exxon Mobil ElectroFrac:

p 352 ElectroFrac test results:

p 353 Forsberg shale oil:

p 353 Oil Drum EROI shale oil tar sands:

p 354 Alberta Oil Sands:

p 355 Gasoline:

p 360 Uhrig et al hydrogen economy synfuels:

p 360 Bogart et al production liquid synfuels: ICAPP ‘

p 359 SRI coal plus natural gas synfuels:

p 360 Green Freedom:

p 360 Green Freedom presentation:

p 360 David Keith air capture:

p 362 Olah et al Recycling CO2:

p 357 Copper chlorine cycle:

p 362 Biomass to diesel, Seiler, Hohwiller:

p 362 Biomass to diesel:

p 362 DOE biomass study:

p 362 Entrained flow gasifier:


p 365 Hargraves, Siemer, Nuclear Ammonia:;%20Thorium's%20Killer%20App%20-%20Robert%20Hargraves%20-%20Dartmouth%20College%20-%20ThEC11.pdf

p 366 NH3 Fuel Association:

p 367 Free piston engine:

p 367 Sturman hydraulic engine:

p 367 Hydrofuel Inc NH3 vehicles:

p 368 Apollo Fuel Cells:

p 368 Solid state ammonia synthesis:

p 370 Calif. gasoline costs:

p 371 Ammonia hazard analysis:

p 372 Hargraves Nuclear Ammonia:

Nuclear cement

p 373 Hargraves Nuclear Cement:


p 376 Forsberg Nuclear Hydrogen:

p 376 Forsberg Hydrogen markets:

p 377 Copper chloride cycle:

p 378 Honda Clarity:

p 378 How Honda Clarity works:

p 378 Linde US hydrogen:

p 378 Linde hydrogen:

p 378 Hydrogen economy:

p 378 Hydrogen car fire:

p 378 Hydrogen powered aircraft:

p 379 Tupolev aircraft:


p 380 UNESCO water report:

p 380 UN Water Under Pressure:

p 381 Wikipedia desalination:

p 381 Siemens desalination:

p 381 Peterson, Zhao advanced multi effect distillation:

Energy policy

p 391 CBO 2012 energy subsidies and support:

p 385 EIA 2010 subsidies:

p 385 DOE 2012 budget:

p 386 MIS subsidies analysis for NEI:

p 386 Pew Char Trust energy subsidies:

p 387 RGGI website:

p 387 Sourcewatch RGGI:

p 388 Vermont feed-in tariffs:

p 388 Feed-in tariffs survey:

p 388 Iowa production tax credits:

p 388 State prod tax credits:

p 388 State energy incentives database:

p 388 EPA renew energy cert:

p 388 REC market:

p 389 Carbon taxes:

p 389 ORNL CO2 information analysis center:

p 389 IEA 2011 CO2:,27216,en.html

p 390 EIA projections:

p 390 Tindale, thorium MSR policy for EU:

p 390 Germany energy policy:

p 390 Europe energy prices:


p 421 Hargraves/Moir article:

p 449 Moir/Teller article:

p 467 Video about Teller: